Have some Questions?

It is normal and healthy for young girls’ bodies to produce clear or white discharge from the vagina during puberty.

However, vaginal discharge in the prepubertal child can be caused by infection, congenital abnormalities, trauma, or dermatologic conditions.


Some infectious causes  include:

Vaginal yeast infection.


  • Vaginitis ( bacteria infection of the vagina). If a young girl has a sexually transmitted vaginal infection, sexual abuse must be considered and addressed.

It can also be caused by irritants such as scented soaps or bubble baths.


– A foreign body, such as toilet paper or a crayon that a young girl may place in the vagina may cause infection with a discharge if the foreign object remains in the vagina.


– Improper cleaning and hygiene.

Causes of painful intercourse differ, depending on whether the pain occurs at entry or with deep thrusting.


Pain during penetration might be associated with a range of factors, including:


  • Not enough lubrication. This is often the result of not enough foreplay.

Certain medications are known to affect sexual desire or arousal, which can decrease lubrication and make sex painful.


  • Inflammation, infection or skin disorder. An infection in your genital area or urinary tract can cause painful intercourse.


Deep pain usually occurs with deep penetration. It might be worse in certain positions. Other Causes include;

  • Certain illnesses and conditions.
  • Scarring from pelvic surgery can cause painful sexual intercourse.
  • Medical treatments for cancer, such as radiation and chemotherapy, can cause changes that make sex painful.


Some of the emotional causes of painful sexual intercourse are;

  • Psychological issues like anxiety, depression, stress and history of sexual abuse.

If you have recurrent pain during sex, talk to your doctor. Treating the problem can help your sex life.


This is Vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, commonly known as yeast infection.


It can be treated with anti-fungal medications as prescribed by your doctor. However, it can be prevented with good vaginal hygiene like: 

-Wearing breathable underwear like cotton underwear.

-Avoid wearing nylon underwear.

-Avoid douching, which is using water or liquid solutions to wash inside the vagina. 

-Keep your underwear dry.

-Avoid or reduce scented bath products.

-Drying underwear under sunlight and avoid staying in wet clothes, such as swimsuits and workout gym clothes for long periods of time.

It can also be prevented by controlling diabetes(blood sugar) if diabetic.

Avoid unnecessary use of drugs like antibiotics and steroids especially when it is not prescribed by your doctor.


If despite these practices, you still experience this discharge, kindly visit your healthcare provider.

A breast self examination is done by a woman at home to know how their breast looks and feel normally.

When you have a regular menstrual cycle, the best time to do a breast self examination is 5-7 days after the start of your period because at this point your breast are less lumpy and tender.

If you are going through menopause, pick a date in the month to examine your breast and this should be done on the same date every month.

If you’re taking hormones, talk to your doctor when the right time to perform breast self examination is.

It is encouraged that women should do this every month, as regular breast self examination can help detect breast tumors early and aids in prompt treatment and reduced complications.

Women can occasionally experience periods without ovulation and it isn’t a cause of concern. 

Young girls, who just started seeing their periods may also not ovulate due to a lot of hormonal changes, this also explains why women approaching menopause may experience periods without ovulating

You may have stopped ovulating because you gained or lost a lot of weight, you’ve been involved in very intense exercise, you changed what or how much you eat, medical conditions like polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), or it could simply be due to a lot of stress. If it persists, see your doctor. 

Due to the fact that the vagina is a muscular tube without a sphincter like the urethra and anal sphincter, semen can’t be withheld just as menstruation can’t be withheld, however due to the fact that spermatozoa is a motile cell, the ones deposited in the vagina that are alive will travel into the uterus as soon as ejaculation has taken place, the remnant fluid which is just a medium of transportation that may contain dead and abnormal spermatozoa which may unable to travel can either be absorbed or flow out like a vagina discharge.

This is an inevitable occurrence and it is not necessarily an abnormality and may not be the reason for infertility.

Miscarriage can be caused by many factors, of which includes:


-Chromosomal abnormalities


-Lifestyle factor such as smoking of cigarettes/Tobacco, alcohol consumption & taking of illicit drugs or unprescribed drugs


-Hormonal imbalance




-Trauma; domestic violence


-Placenta problems


-Incompetent cervix


These could be avoided by;


-Preconception clinic visit


-Practicing good hygiene to prevent infections


-Lifestyle modifications such as cessation of smoking, alcohol and illicit drugs


-Avoiding trauma or strenuous work and domestic violence


-In the case of incompetent cervix, closure of the cervix can be done by a skilled doctor


However, when you notice any sign of miscarriage, don’t hesitate in consulting your doctor for proper management.

Getting pregnant doesn’t depend only on the number of times you have sexual intercourse with your partner. It depends greatly on the right timing.


There is something called fertile period, it usually starts about 5 days before your ovulation period including the day of ovulation, so this period is the best period to have sexual intercourse with your partner in order to achieve conception


In addition, sexual intercourse should be frequent & adequate. The frequency is 

greater than or equal to 3 sexual intercourse on different days of the week & for every week.

Fowl smelling vaginal discharge in elderly women is an alarming symptom that might be the first sign of a genital tract malignancy such as cervical cancer. It can also be as a result of infections such as bacterial vaginosis and trichomonas vaginitis especially in the context of high risk sexual behaviors. 

Women affected are advised to avoid self medications and visit a good hospital to see an experienced gynecologist for expert management.

Most of the time, post-menopausal bleeding is caused by:


-Inflammation and thinning of the lining of your vagina and uterus due to low levels of estrogen, i.e the female hormone.

This could be a sinister sign of an ongoing genital tract malignancy hence, all forms of bleeding at menopause, must be evaluated by your doctor to rule out a malignancy (irrespective of how little the quantity of the blood seems).

In preventing breast cancer, the following can be done to reduce the likelihood of having breast cancer;

  • abstain from smoking and minimize alcohol consumption,
  • avoid regular use of oral contraceptive pills,
  • avoid exposure to ionizing radiation,
  • control body weight.


 However, for early detection and prompt treatment you can do the following;

  • Breast self examination

this involves you palpating your breasts methodically every month, and  ‘getting familiar with your breast’. If there is any perceived anomaly report to your  doctor.

  • Clinical breast examination by a doctor. Just like breast self examination it will only detect cancer after a lump or other abnormalities have formed.
  • Mammography screening. This can help detect even small and impalpable cancers.

     Genetic screening. This helps you to know if there is any genetic predisposition. 

 – Women who are high risk can also do a preventive surgery.


It is important to note that breast cancer is one of the leading cause of death among cancer related deaths in women. So preventing breast cancer is important.

Prevention of cervical malignancy involves a deliberate approach at modification of sexual behavior which ranges from avoiding early sexual intercourse (child marriage), avoiding multiple sexual partners, and prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections as well as avoidance of smoking and prolonged use of combined oral contraceptive pills.

One of the most important ways includes vaccination against Human Papilloma Virus as well as early detection and treatment of high risk Human Papilloma Virus and pre-cancer abnormalities of the cervix usually detected by doing a Pap Smear Test every 3-5 years in a woman above 25 years of age.

Ovarian cancer is the commonest cause of gynecological cancer death that is very difficult to prevent because most victims present in advance stages. Regular trans-vaginal ultrasound scan, use of CA 125, use of serum CA 125, and other tumor markers have been used to detect early stage of disease how be it with minimal success rate.

Women with positive family history of breast, ovarian, endometrial and colorectal malignancy in first degree relatives can have preventive surgeries after completing child birth in which the ovaries as well as other relevant structures that can become malignant are removed ahead of time. Counseling  and reassurance from a specialist is also important.

Non-surgical treatment of fibroids involves symptomatic treatment and use of non-surgical techniques that help reduce the size of the fibroid.

 – The symptomatic treatment involves the use of drugs that only help to prevent the symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding and bleeding in-between menstrual cycle. However symptomatic treatment is only effective when the fibroid is small and detected early.

  • Non-surgical treatments that help to reduce the size of the fibroid include the use of hormone therapies that help reduce the level of female sex hormones(estrogen and progesterone). However, long term use is not recommended as it can cause damages to the bones and early onset of menopause. Also the fibroids regrow to their previous size after the treatment is stopped.
  • Another method that can be used to significantly reduce the size of the fibroid is the use of uterine artery embolization. This entails introducing a substance into the blood that blocks the blood vessels supplying the area where the fibroid is located. This causes shrinkage of the fibroid.

Currently, research and studies are going on to determine if herbs are good for the treatment of fibroids and at what quantity(dose) it should be given.


Although anedoctal experience has shown that fibroids surgery done after the use of herbs are usually far more difficult than those that have been done without prior herbal medications.


The use of herbal concoction and supplement are not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and so ensure to talk with your doctor before taking herbal supplements.

The following can cause scanty menstrual periods

Prematurity of the regulatory system of menstrual flow, excessive weight gain and weight-loss, use of contraceptives.

In women with monthly lower abdominal pain it could be due to obstruction within the uterus cervix or vagina, that might require gynecological interventions.

Heavy menstrual flow occurs when there are blood clots within your menses (menstrual blood ideally should not clot or come in blocks). One of the commonest reasons includes; uterine fibroid and other uterine masses. It may also be due to prematurity of the regulatory mechanism of menstruation, or blood clotting abnormalities that may require intervention. Please see your doctor for further evaluation and treatment as this may result in life threatening outcomes.

It is only a health care provider that can say for certain if you have ectopic pregnancy or not, after a thorough clinical examination and evaluation, laboratory investigations and in combination with scans. However, you can suspect ectopic pregnancy if you have pregnancy symptoms (like nausea, vomiting, missed period) with;


-Pain on your abdomen/pelvis either on one side or both sides

-Bleeding from the vagina


 If you have these, you should visit your health provider immediately to confirm if you have an ectopic pregnancy or not. It is important to also note that a pregnancy can be ectopic without the presence of vaginal bleeding and pain the abdomen/pelvis in the part of the pregnancy therefore early registration of pregnancy for Antenatal care and evaluation can also help in can also help in confirming if the pregnancy is ectopic or not in the absence of symptoms other than that which normally comes with pregnancy.

Food rich in fibers such as vegetables, legumes and whole grains, eating lots of fruits and drinking enough water is encouraged. 

Eating excess fried food and refined sugar is not healthy in pregnancy. 

Then lastly a pregnant woman should not have the mindset of eating for two, as this could lead to excess weight gain and it’s problems.

The duration for labour will depend on if you are a first time mum or if you have given birth before.


Labour will generally last for 10 to 16 hours. 

The first 8-12 hours will be for uterine contraction to allow your cervix dilate after which you will begin the Second stage of your Labour, which involves pushing out of the baby.

For first time mums, this can last for up to 2 hours.

For women who have given birth before, this can last for about an hour (there is an additional 1 hour if the woman is on epidural).

After this, the placenta will be delivered and this is expected to take about 30 minutes.

Baby movements within the womb usually begin by the 18-20weeks in first pregnancy or earlier in women who have given birth before.

There is no particular set number of movements you should feel per day. Although, 10 distinct movements in 12hours is considered re-assuring. 

If fewer than this, please consult your physician.

NO, because it can cause harm to the baby. 

Drinking alcohol during pregnancy has been associated with miscarriages, small for gestational age babies, and intellectual impairment in children. 

While, herbal medicine could lead to premature labour, increased blood flow, abortion/miscarriages, allergic reactions and heartburn for the mothers. 

Prolonged use of herbal medications has also been associated with chronic kidney disease. 

Low back pain is quite common during pregnancy. Some of the causes include; 

• Weight gain.

• Ligament and muscles changes.

• Changes in hormone.

• Change in posture due to increased center of gravity caused by the baby.

•Stress of pregnancy.


What can you do?


•Quality rest.

•Regular exercises (see the next question).

•Cold and heat therapy: Use of ice packs, heat pads, and regular warm and cold baths can also help.

•Maintaining a good posture: you can use maternity pillows for this.

•Use of pain relief prescribed only by your doctor.

Exercises safe in pregnancy include;


Strength conditioning exercises and  Low impact aerobic exercises e.g


1. Brisk walking

2. Swimming 

3. Indoor Stationary Cycling

4. Step or elliptical machines

5. Yoga 

6. Dancing 

7. Hiking

8. Golf

9. Body balance 

10. Stair climbing

11. Rowing

12. Squats


These exercises are aimed at keeping the woman fit and also preparing her for the stress of labor and delivery.

Exercises have shown to reduce back pain , reduce weight gain and improve sleep. 

Recommended time for most women, is exercising for 30mins of moderate exercise.

A pregnant woman exercising should be able to hold a conversation while working out as a check against over exertion.

Gentle penetrative sex in pregnancy is normal especially in low-risk pregnancies but it is not encouraged in pregnancies with increased risk of preterm labour.

Sexual activities at term can help induce labour, as stimulation of the nipples and genitals help in the release of hormones that causes uterine contractions.

Also, hormones in semen and those released from stimulation of the cervix during sex may cause cervical ripening.

However, it is safe for the baby as the thick mucus that seals the cervix guards the baby against infections when safe sex is practiced (This is NOT applicable to women with multiple sexual partners)


Leg swelling is one of the common physiological symptoms in pregnancy, usually due to reduction in the blood flow  from the legs due to compression by the growing uterus, as well as movement of fluid into the tissue spaces within the legs due to reduced oncotic pressure in pregnancy. 

This can be resolved by elevating the legs on a pillow, which helps blood flow from the legs and reduces the swelling. Use of medications for the purpose of reducing leg swelling in pregnancy is not advisable, and this can in-fact result in reduction of the baby water (liquor) as well as other life threatening complications such as low blood pressure, and worsening of an hypertensive state in pregnancy. 

A clear non-foul smelling watery discharge in pregnancy is know as leuckoerhoea of pregnancy , which is due to secretions from the cervical gland is absolutely normal in pregnancy. It can occasionally cause some concern or put some anxiety for women who mistake this as baby water. Liquor drainage on the other hand occur in a similar fashion but in this case the water is usually in excess of what the woman is used to trickling down the thighs and sometimes requiring the use of a vulva pad , please consult your doctor if you suspect that what you’re seeing is baby water(liquor).


Ultrasound scan should be done at least twice in pregnancy.


First; 10-14weeks

  To confirm your pregnancy is viable and estimate your baby’s due date


Second; 18-22weeks.

  It helps check your baby’s body organs, specifically looking at their structure and growth, their gestational age and size will also be estimated based on these measurements. This scan also checks your baby’s heart rate and rhythm, and makes sure your placenta is not lying near or over the cervix and that the cervix is long and closed. Depending on your baby’s position, this scan may also reveal your baby’s sex.


But if there are any problems with these initial ultrasounds, or if there is a discrepancy in the fetus size along the way, a repeat ultrasound should be done.


Also If there medical issues like diabetes or hypertension, then they will also receive additional scans.

All pregnant women without symptoms of malaria should take at least 2 dose of antimalarial drugs during pregnancy.


The first should be taken after quickening (first fetal kick), while the second dose should be taking 4 weeks after the first dose.


But if you notice symptoms of malaria, you should see your doctor for adequate treatment.

Yes, in a highly infective place where worm infestation is common it is advised that a pregnant woman should deworm because of anemia, low birth weight and death of the fetus. It is also advised that the drug is only use during the second trimester upward, excluding first trimester. Be sure to see your doctor before taking any worm medications.

Other helpful tips are, to wash hands before eating, after visiting the toilet, wash all fruit and food ingredients properly and cook food well.

All drugs taken in pregnancy should be prescribed by your doctor in cases of adverse drug reaction harmful to the mother and the baby how ever some safe drugs in pregnancy include: 


-Penicillin : Amoxicillin and Ampicillin 

-Cephalosporin : Cefaclor and Cephalexin 



Urinalysis involves analysis/testing of the urine in order to identify abnormal substances that could be found in urine. It is important because it could help to diagnose medical conditions that could co-exist with pregnancy or arise as a result of pregnancy and pose serious risk to your baby. These conditions include;

1. Diabetes in Pregnancy in which glucose is found in urine. 

2. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy such as Preeclampsia in which proteins are found in urine.

3. Co-existing infections of the urinary tract.

Hence performing a urinalysis during each antenatal visit would help with prompt diagnosis as well as adequate management.

It can be an especially hard transition knowing you get tired more easily than supposed, but, it is basically normal in pregnancy.


Reasons may include;


1. Hormones

Hormonal changes play a big role in making you feel tired, especially the hormone progesterone. This hormone rises sharply in the first trimester and engineer development of Placenta, fetus and even breast.

A lot of nutrients are required for the growth of placenta and fetus and this saps maternal energy.


2. Weight of conception

The woman carries additional weight during pregnancy which increases energy need and this leads to easy tiredness.


3. Basal metabolic rate is increased leading to more energy expenditure.


4. Anaemia

Dilution anaemia which is due to excess water in the system of pregnancy woman, it can lead to increase workload of the heart and this generally leads to easy tiredness.


A cesarean section was once a relatively rare way to deliver a baby. But today, almost 1 in 3 pregnant women  give birth in an operating room. While a C-section may be the safest way to deliver under high-risk circumstances, research indicates that this major surgical procedure is not always necessary and can pose a higher risk to the health of many mothers and babies. 

There are ways to avoid doing a caesarean section in pregnancy. The following ways could be helpful in avoiding it


  • Don’t go hungry, but do not gain too much weight

Many women gain more weight during pregnancy than is recommended. Ask your provider what your weight gain goal should be, and do your best to eat a proper diet.


  • Get plenty of exercise.

You can safely engage in regular, moderate-intensity physical activity during pregnancy, although you should always consult with your provider before starting a new exercise program. 


  • Take childbirth classes.

This helps to prepare you adequately before delivery.


  • If the baby is breech, take him or her for a spin.

If your baby is breech (feet first) and you’re at least 36 weeks pregnant, you may be a candidate for a procedure called an external cephalic version (ECV). ECV involves applying pressure to the mother’s abdomen to turn the baby to a head-down presentation.  


  • Minimize stress with yoga and meditation. Discuss your fears and concerns with your provider. Trust in what your body can do.


When you’re near the end of pregnancy the following ways can help reduce the chances of a C section: 


  • Avoid labor induction.

Women who undergo labor induction have higher C-section rates than those who wait for it to begin spontaneously. If you are less than 41 weeks of pregnancy, avoid the temptation to have your labor induced unless your provider has identified a medical reason for it.


  • Consider a doula or childbirth coach.

A doula is trained to provide non-medical labor support. Studies show that using a doula can decrease your risk of C-section. If you can’t afford to pay a doula, there are some who volunteer this service. Otherwise, a been-there-done-that, supportive friend can make a wonderful labor coach.


Once again, relax , convey your fears and trust your body


These are ways in which your chances of doing a caesarean section can be reduced but if indicated or directed by your obstetrician to do a caesarean section then it is advisable that you comply as this can help to improve your health as well as the health of your baby.


The causes of maternal death can be divided into direct causes, and indirect causes. 

The direct causes include;

Bleeding 25%

Obstructed labour8%

Unsafe abortion-13%

Infection -25%


Bleeding is the commonest cause. 

Other causes include; Heart diseases in pregnancy,

Kidney disease in pregnancy 

Delays in taking decisions, transportation and health care associated delays.


It can be prevented by being compliant with routine antenatal care, and taking your routine medications. Life style modifications also such as weight loss, and adequate diet also help. 

The obstetrician has a very vital role to play in the prevention of maternal death. 


Causes of baby death are uncontrolled maternal hypertension, uncontrolled diabetes, lassa fever, cervical incompetence, rhesus iso-immunization, malaria, syphilis in mothers, Trauma to the pregnant woman or child, Hepatitis infection (hepatitis B and C), preterm/premature and low birth weight babies.

These causes of death can be prevented by booking antenatal immediately after the second missed period and routine antenatal care visit which is 4 weeks interval from 4 weeks to 28 weeks of gestational age and  2 weeks interval at 28 weeks to 36 weeks and 1week  interval from 36 weeks to term.

Long acting reversible contraception are readily available in form of arm implant that last for 3 or 5 years, microchips and Intra Uterine devices that last for up to 5 to 10 years. Every woman has unique peculiarities that makes her distinct from another such that their choices for long acting contraception almost always differ.

You can discuss with your doctor to know the most appropriate method for you. 

  • Feeding/Nutrition: Ideal nutrition and best source of food for growth and development. It has the right amount of fat, sugar, water, protein and vitamins for the baby. Colostrum, first milk produced after delivery newborn is high in antibodies and antioxidants to build a newborn baby’s immune system. 


  • It’s easy to digest for the baby’s immature stomach and intestines.


  • Immunity: It contains antibodies that protect against infection and boost immunity.


  • Brain power: helps in healthy early brain development.


  • Easily accessible, Convenient, feeding can be done anywhere, anytime.


  • It is at the right temperature


  • Reduces the risk of asthma, and some other medical conditions.


  • It is not expensive.


  • It is protective and reduces mother’s risk of breast, ovarian cancer, hypertension.


  • It is a means of bonding between mother and baby.

Yes u can, but It is preferable to give just breastmilk for the first 6 months to your baby. If you are breastfeeding it is advisable to gradually introduce formula feeds to your baby after the 6 month mark.


You might want to combine breast milk with formula feed if your baby is not getting enough milk or if the breast milk doesn’t meet your baby’s needs .


It is also possible to mix breast milk and formula feed as these can make feeding time more convenient for the mother.

1. Regular feeding of the baby (feeding on demand) and pumping sessions.


2. Exclusive breastfeeding 


3. The breast should be emptied at every feeding episode.


4. Avoid limiting the baby’s time at the breast.


5. Ensuring a good latch/positioning of the baby on the breast.

(See next question for information about the correct position for breastfeeding)


6. Weaning the baby from breastmilk should be done slowly over several weeks/months.


In cases where breast engorgement already occurred,  some relieving factors include;


1. Feeding from the engorged breast first.

2. Applying cold packs between feeding.

3. Wearing a properly fitted and supportive bra.

4. Use of pain relievers such as acetaminophen.

The correct position for breastfeeding is to lean back but not flat on a couch or a bed.


Support yourself with cushions or pillows to bring your baby to your breast height and your neck, shoulders, and back feel supported.


When you are comfortable, place your baby on your front. Their tummy should be resting on your tummy or laid on one side.


When feeding your baby on your left breast hold the baby in your left arm and place your left hand to stabilize the baby’s neck and hold your nipple towards the baby’s mouth and the baby will naturally move towards the breast and start sucking. 


A good breastfeeding position would encourage you and your baby to be comfortable with no pain on sucking.

Tetanus vaccine causes a local inflammatory response at the injection site and the earliest symptom of inflammation is pain.

The vaccine is important to prevent significant harm to the mother and the child e.g neonatal tetanus

At least two doses are advocated in pregnancy the first dose is given at the first contact with the caregiver/clinician while the second dose is given four weeks after the first dose and a total of 5 doses should be taken for full protection.

Folic acid is a vitamin that is needed for the health of your baby during pregnancy.


It prevents damage to your baby’s brain and spinal cord.


Because of this importance every pregnant woman is required to take folic acid along with her other routine pregnancy medications everyday of her pregnancy starting from when she realizes that she’s pregnant.


However, it is advised that women in their child bearing age take 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid every day or at least 3 months before they become pregnant and everyday during the pregnancy.


To know the ideal weight in pregnancy the woman’s pre-pregnancy weight, is put into consideration.


•For Normal weight (BMI/ 18.5-24.9) pregnant woman : ideal weight gain is  11-16kg.


• For Underweight(BMI/<18.5) pregnant woman:  ideal weight gain is 13-18kg


• For Overweight(BMI/25-29.9) pregnant woman:  ideal weight gain is 7-11kg


• For an Obese(BMI/>30) pregnant woman:  ideal weight gain is 5-9kg.


But however, the body during pregnancy stores fat as its ready to make breast milk after the delivery of the baby.


Too much weight gain can lead to increase blood pressure during the pregnancy.

Too little weight gain can also lead to preterm birth of baby.

Family medical history is important because pregnancy is not affected by the mothers medical background alone.

Both parents contribute a gene each to form the baby, so the parent’s family medical history is important because, some medical problems are genetic and inheritable, this may affect the pregnancy and the development of the baby, family history of diabetes mellitus, Hypertension, Fibroid, Sickle cell, twinning , Renal diseases and birth defect like neural tube defect to mention a few are conditions that are worthy of note.

There is no maximum number of Caesarean session a woman can have. It is advised by obstetricians to have a maximum of 3 caesarean sessions. Four or more caesarean sections is often associated with a longer operating time as well as an increased risk of complications. So with each increasing number of caesarean session, comes an increase risk of complications during the procedure.

It depends on the type of anesthesia that’ll be administered to you. For a General Anesthesia, you will be put to sleep but other methods of anesthesia like a spinal block or epidural block both involve numbing the lower half of the body and you’ll will be fully conscious for the duration of the procedure.

No it would not, anesthesia is safe during delivery especially when performed by an expert, as an appropriate dose will be given based on the evaluation and needs of the mother

The only thing is that general anesthesia will prevent you from seeing your baby immediately after birth, since you would be asleep. So, local anesthesia is mainly used to numb a painful area or after delivery when stitches are needed.

 You’re not expected to lose too much blood during a caesarean section. The amount of blood loss shouldn’t be more than 1 liter of blood. This amount of blood loss can be replaced with blood transfusion or giving Drips. But be rest assured this amount of blood loss is not enough to make you sick or increase your stay in the hospital after the operation.

Caesarean section, it’s indications and complications increases the risk of excessive blood loss and may call for a need for blood transfusion before, during and after surgery.

While a good percentage of women undergoing cesarean delivery will not need blood transfusion, the need is subject to assessment of pregnant mother by her doctor.

Yes, as long as you want your partner to be with you through out labour and delivery, it is very much acceptable.

It is actually encouraged as it can help you stay calm, they will also provide physical support, emotional support and comfort when you need it the most. It’s advantages goes beyond the labour room for the mother, baby and the birthing partner.

Your birthing partner can be your husband, mother, mother in law, friend or anyone whom you deeply trust and who understands you well.

Pain in labour is usually caused by contraction of the uterus to move the baby down the birth canal, therefore pain during child birth is always common.


Yes, you will get pain relief during labour


Your health care provider or doctor will give you pain-relieving options like: Epidural Anesthesia, intravenous and intramuscular analgesia.

Fibroids are benign growths in the uterus(womb) and depending on the size of the fibroid, it may or may not affect the pregnancy. 

Small fibroids may have no effect on pregnancy but larger fibroids can however affect pregnancy. 

It can cause miscarriages, restrictions in the growth of the baby, premature labour and may warrant a caesarean section. 

Hence, it is important to consult your doctor in cases of fibroid in pregnancy.

Yes it can. 

Since the removal of uterine fibroids can be done without significant complications, it can be done during a CS. Though this is usually done after the baby has be removed and can only be done first if it will interfere with the delivery of the baby.

The amount of time a woman needs to take off work after delivery depends on several factors such as the type of delivery, health status after delivery and the type of work. Most women take 6-8 weeks of maternity leave to recover physically and bond with their baby. However, some may need more time off, especially if they have had a complicated delivery or a cesarean section. It is essential to have a conversation with a healthcare provider before returning to work and have a plan in place for childcare. Ultimately, the decision of when to return to work after delivery is a personal one.

Caesarean section is an operative procedure and it’s advisable to wait for at least a year or two to get pregnant again. This depends on your age, possible complications during the caesarean section and your health status after the surgery. 

RhoGAM (Anti D immunoglobulin) should be taken if the mother appears to be Rhesus Negative. 

It is given at 24weeks, 32weeks of pregnancy and 72hrs after delivery to prevent damages that comes with mixture  of maternal blood with that of the baby’s blood which could cause death of the baby and death in future pregnancies if not taken. It is also given to avoid brain damages in the baby and anaemia. This injection should be given by a health personnel.

This can be done medically through:


2.Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)


What is Amniocentesis?

This test involves placing a needle through the abdomen to the womb to obtain a small sample of fluid called the amniotic fluid in which the baby floats.

The amniocentesis test is best done between 16 and 18 weeks of pregnancy and can be done in an outpatients clinic without the need for an overnight hospital stay.

As part of the test, an ultrasound scan is carried out to check the wellbeing of the baby. The fluid contains cells from the baby and these cells are grown in the laboratory so that genetic tests can be carried out on them 


What is chorionic villus sampling (CVS)?

The CVS test is carried out earlier then amniocentesis – at about the 9th or 10th week of pregnancy, it is also an outpatient procedure. Rather than testing the amniotic fluid, this test take a very small sample from the developing placenta, this sample contains the genetic material of the baby.

This test is done by placing a thin tube through the cervix (neck of the womb) to obtain the sample.

It can also be done by placing a needle in the womb and using an ultrasound scan to guide it.

This condition is called Polyhydramnios and it could be due to 

-Multiple pregnancy

-Diabetes in the mother

-Heart disease in the mother

-Kidney disease in the mother

-Blood group mismatch between the mother and fetus 

-An infection during pregnancy 

-A blockage in the baby’s intestine

-Developmental abnormalities of the fetus

Too little baby water is called Oligohydramnios. The baby water is formed mainly from baby’s urine, and maternal plasma, so anything that interferes with production and flow of urine as well as function of placenta will cause too little baby water e.g

  • Absence of one or both kidney
  • Non functioning kidneys
  • Obstruction to flow of urine
  • When the placenta isn’t functioning properly e.g hypertension in pregnancy, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, post term pregnancy.
  • Preterm rupture of membrane which causes the baby water to leak out.

The separation of placenta before delivery is called abruptio placentae.

Causes include;

  • Hypertension during pregnancy
  • Previous placenta detachment
  • Trauma
  • Smoking
  • Short umbilical cord
  • High parity (having too many babies)
  • Low social economic status
  • Plenty baby water
  • Uterine fibroids.

This can be prevented by 

Early registration for antenatal clinic and proper follow up on antenatal visits. 

This is known medically as PLACENTA PREVIA. It is a condition in which the placenta partially or wholly blocks the lower part of the uterus, thus interfering with normal delivery of a baby. 



  • Previous Delivery of a baby.
  • Previous C-section delivery.
  • Previous scars on the uterus from a previous surgery or procedure.
  • Past history of placenta previa in a pregnant woman.
  • Pregnancy resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedure.
  • Multiple fetus in pregnancy.
  • Increased maternal age (usually from 35 and above).
  • Diabetes in Pregnancy.
  • Uterine Fibroid.
  • Rhesus iso-immunization.
  • Multi-parity


How to prevent it?


There is no specific way to prevent placenta previa. However early antenatal booking is key to making a diagnosis and managing this condition. Furthermore, knowing the risks, reducing them and adequate treatment of any medical condition that predisposes one and also by doing C-section only if medically necessary can help.

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